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Opt Express. 2009 Sep 14;17(19):17016-33. doi: 10.1364/OE.17.017016.

Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions.

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  • 1Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin, Germany.


Using scanning time-domain instrumentation we recorded fluorescence projection mammograms on few breast cancer patients prior, during and after infusion of indocyanine green (ICG), while monitoring arterial ICG concentration by transcutaneous pulse densitometry. Late-fluorescence mammograms recorded after ICG had been largely cleared from the blood by the liver, showed invasive carcinomas at high contrast over a rather homogeneous background, whereas benign lesions did not produce (focused) fluorescence contrast. During infusion, tissue concentration contrast and hence fluorescence contrast is determined by intravascular contributions, whereas late-fluorescence mammograms are dominated by contributions from protein-bound ICG extravasated into the interstitium, reflecting relative microvascular permeabilities of carcinomas and normal breast tissue. We simulated intravascular and extravascular contributions to ICG tissue concentration contrast within a two-compartment unidirectional pharmacokinetic model.

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