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AIDS. 2010 Jan 2;24(1):123-37. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283324283.

The effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on the overall mortality of HIV-infected individuals.

Collaborators (1179)

Phillips AN, Gilson R, Easterbrook P, Fisher M, Gazzard B, Johnson M, Walsh J, Leen C, Orkin C, Anderson J, Pillay D, Delpech V, Schwenk A, Dunn D, Gompels M, Hill T, Porter K, Babiker A, Sabin C, Babiker A, Dunn D, Porter K, Easterbrook P, Waters A, Crates D, Mohamed-Saad S, Fisher M, Perry N, Pullin A, Churchill D, Harris W, Nelson M, Asboe D, Bulbeck S, Mandalia S, Clarke J, Gilson R, Dodds J, Rider A, Delpech V, Johnson M, Youle M, Lampe F, Smith C, Gumley H, Chaloner C, Ismajani D, Walsh J, Weber J, Cashin S, Kemble C, Mackie N, Orkin C, Thomas R, Jones K, Anderson J, Gann S, Jones K, Leen C, Wilson A, Schwenk A, Ainsworth J, Gompels M, de Wolf F, Bezemer DO, Gras LA, Kesselring AM, van Sighem AI, Smit C, Zhang S, Zaheri S, Prins JM, Bos JC, Eeftinck-Schattenkerk JK, Geerlings SE, Godfried MH, Lange JM, van der Meer JT, Nellen FJ, Olszyna DP, van der Poll M, Reiss P, Sankatsing SU, Steingrover R, van der Valk M, Vermeulen JN, Vrouenraets SM, van Vugt M, Wit FW, Schreij G, van der Geest S, Oude Lashof A, Lowe S, Verbon A, Kuijpers TW, Pajkrt D, Scherpbier HJ, van der Ende ME, Bax H, van der Feltz M, Gelinck LB, Nouwen JL, Rijnders BJ, de Ruiter ED, Slobbe L, Schurink CA, de Vries TE, Driessen G, van der Flier M, Hartwig NG, Branger J, Kauffmann RH, Schippers EF, Groeneveld PH, Alleman MA, ten Kate RW, Soetekouw R, Kroon FP, Arend SM, de Boer MG, van den Broek PJ, van Dissel JT, van Nieuwkoop C, den Hollander JG, Bronsveld W, Vriesendorp R, Jeurissen FJ, Leyten EM, van Houte D, Polée MB, ten Napel CH, Kootstra GJ, Brinkman K, van den Berk GE, Blok WL, Frissen PH, Schouten WE, van Eeden A, Verhagen DW, Mulder JW, van Gorp EC, Mairuhu AT, Steingrover R, Wagenaar J, Juttmann JR, van Kasteren ME, Veenstra J, Vasmel WL, Koopmans PP, Brouwer AM, Dofferhoff AS, de Groot R, ter Hofstede HJ, Keuter M, van der Ven AJ, Sprenger HG, van Assen S, van Leeuwen JT, Stek CJ, Doedens R, Scholvinck EH, Hoepelman IM, Schneider MM, Bonten MJ, Ellerbroek PM, Jaspers CA, Maarschalk-Ellerbroek LJ, Oosterheert JJ, Peters EJ, Mudrikova T, Wassenberg MW, Weijer S, Geelen SP, Wolfs TF, Danner SA, van Agtmael MA, Bierman WF, Claessen FA, Hillebrand ME, de Jong EV, Kortmann W, Perenboom RM, bij de Vaate EA, Richter C, van der Berg J, Gisolf EH, Tanis AA, Duits AJ, Winkel K, Elisabeth ST, Abgrall S, Barin F, Bentata M, Billaud E, Boué F, Burty C, Cabié A, Costagliola D, Cotte L, De Truchis P, Duval X, Duvivier C, Enel P, Fredouille-Heripret L, Gasnault J, Gaud C, Gilquin J, Grabar S, Katlama C, Khuong MA, Lang JM, Lascaux AS, Launay O, Mahamat A, Mary-Krause M, Matheron S, Meynard JL, Pavie J, Pialoux G, Pilorgé F, Poizot-Martin I, Pradier C, Reynes J, Rouveix E, Simon A, Tattevin P, Tissot-Dupont H, Viard JP, Viget N, Salomon V, Jacquemet N, Abgrall S, Costagliola D, Grabar S, Guiguet M, Lanoy E, Liévre L, Mary-Krause M, Selinger-Leneman H, Lacombe JM, Potard V, Bricaire F, Herson S, Katlama C, Simon A, Desplanque N, Girard PM, Meynard JL, Meyohas MC, Picard O, Cadranel J, Mayaud C, Pialoux G, Clauvel JP, Decazes JM, Gerard L, Molina JM, Diemer M, Sellier P, Bentata M, Honoré P, Jeantils V, Tassi S, Mechali D, Taverne B, Berthé H, Dupont C, Chandemerle C, Mortier E, de Truchis P, Tisne-Dessus D, Weiss L, Salmon D, Auperin I, Gilquin J, Roudière L, Viard JP, Boué F, Fior R, Delfraissy JF, Goujard C, Jung C, Lesprit PH, Vittecoq D, Fraisse P, Lang JM, Rey D, Beck-Wirth G, Stahl JP, Lecercq P, Gourdon F, Laurichesse H, Fresard A, Lucht F, Bazin C, Verdon R, Chavanet P, Arvieux C, Michelet C, Choutet P, Goudeau A, Maître MF, Hoen B, Eglinger P, Faller JP, Borsa-Lebas F, Caron F, Reynes J, Daures JP, May T, Rabaud C, Berger JL, Rémy G, Arlet-Suau E, Cuzin L, Massip P, Legrand MF, Pontonnier G, Viget N, Yasdanpanah Y, Dellamonica P, Pradier C, Pugliese P, Aleksandrowicz K, Quinsat D, Ravaux I, Tissot-Dupont H, Delmont JP, Moreau J, Gastaut JA, Poizot-Martin I, Retornaz F, Soubeyrand J, Galinier A, Ruiz JM, Allegre T, Blanc PA, Bonnet-Montchardon D, Lepeu G, Granet-Brunello P, Esterni JP, Pelissier L, Cohen-Valensi R, Nezri M, Chadapaud S, Laffeuillade A, Billaud E, Raffi F, Boibieux A, Peyramond D, Livrozet JM, Touraine JL, Cotte L, Trepo C, Strobel M, Bissuel F, Pradinaud R, Sobesky M, Cabié A, Gaud C, Contant M, Aebi C, Battegay M, Bernasconi E, Böni J, Brazzola P, Bucher HC, Bürgisser PH, Calmy A, Cattacin S, Cavassini M, Cheseaux JJ, Drack G, Dubs R, Egger M, Elzi L, Fischer M, Flepp M, Fontana A, Francioli P, Furrer HJ, Fux C, Gayet-Ageron A, Gerber S, Gorgievski M, Günthard H, Gyr TH, Hirsch H, Hirschel B, Hösli I, Hüsler M, Kaiser L, Kahlert CH, Karrer U, Kind C, Klimkait TH, Ledergerber B, Martinetti G, Martinez B, Müller N, Nadal D, Paccaud F, Pantaleo G, Raio L, Rauch A, Regenass S, Rickenbach M, Rudin C, Schmid P, Schultze D, Schüpbach J, Speck R, Taffé P, Telenti A, Trkola A, Vernazza P, Weber R, Wyler CA, Yerly S, Casabona J, Miró JM, Alquézar A, Isern V, Casabona J, Esteve A, Alquézar A, Miró JM, Podzamczer D, Murillas J, Gatell JM, Agüero F, Tural C, Clotet B, Ferrer E, Riera M, Segura F, Navarro G, Force L, Vilaró J, Masabeu A, García I, Guadarrama M, Romero A, Agustí C, Esteve A, Montoliu A, Ortega N, Lazzari E, Puchol E, Sanchez M, Blanco JL, Garcia-Alcaide F, Martínez E, López-Dieguez M, García-Goez JF, Sirera G, Romeu J, Jou A, Negredo E, Miranda C, Capitan MC, Olmo M, Barragan P, Saumoy M, Bolao F, Cabellos C, Peña C, Sala M, Cervantes M, Amengual MJ, Navarro M, Penelo E, Guadarrama M, Berenguer J, del Amo J, García F, Gutiérrez F, Labarga P, Moreno S, Muñoz MA, Caro-Murillo AM, Sobrino P, Jarrín I, Sirvent JL, Rodríguez P, Alemán MR, Alonso MM, López AM, Hernández MI, Soriano V, Labarga P, Barreiro P, Medrano J, Rivas P, Herrero D, Blanco F, Vispo ME, Martín L, Ramírez G, de Diego M, Rubio R, Pulido F, Moreno V, Cepeda C, Hervás RI, Iribarren JA, Arrizabalaga J, Aramburu MJ, Camino X, Rodríguez-Arrondo F, von Wichmann MA, Pascual L, Goenaga MA, Gutiérrez F, Masiá M, Ramos JM, Padilla S, Sánchez-Hellín V, Bernal E, Escolano C, Montolio F, Peral Y, Berenguer J, López JC, Miralles P, Cosín J, Sánchez M, Gutiérrez I, Ramírez M, Padilla B, Vidal F, Sanjuan M, Peraire J, Veloso S, Viladés C, López-Dupla M, Olona M, Vargas M, Aldeguer JL, Blanes M, Lacruz J, Salavert M, Montero M, Cuéllar S, de los Santos I, Sanz J, Oteo JA, Blanco JR, Ibarra V, Metola L, Sanz M, Pérez-Martínez L, Sola J, Uriz J, Castiello J, Reparaz J, Arriaza MJ, Irigoyen C, Moreno S, Antela A, Casado JL, Dronda F, Moreno A, Pérez MJ, López D, Gutiérrez C, Hernández B, Pumares M, Martí P, García L, Page C, García F, Hernández J, Peña A, Muñoz L, Parra J, Viciana P, Leal M, López-Cortés LF, Trastoy M, Mata R, Justice AC, Fiellin DA, Rimland D, Jones-Taylor C, Oursler KA, Titanji R, Brown S, Garrison S, Rodriguez-Barradas M, Masozera N, Goetz M, Leaf D, Simberkoff M, Blumenthal D, Leung J, Butt A, Hoffman E, Gibert C, Peck R, Mattocks K, Braithwaite S, Brandt C, Bryant K, Cook R, Conigliaro J, Crothers K, Chang J, Crystal S, Day N, Erdos J, Freiberg M, Kozal M, Gandhi N, Gaziano M, Gerschenson M, Good B, Gordon A, Goulet JL, Hernán MA, Kraemer K, Lim J, Maisto S, Miller P, Mole L, O'Connor P, Papas R, Robins JM, Rinaldo C, Roberts M, Samet J, Tierney B, Whittle J, Phillips A, Babiker A, Brettle R, Darbyshire J, Delpech V, Easterbrook P, Fidler S, Fisher M, Gilson R, Goldberg D, Hawkins D, Jaffe H, Johnson M, McLean K, Pillay D, Porter K, Cursley A, Ewings F, Fairbrother K, Gnatiuc L, Lodi S, Murphy B, Douglas G, Kennedy N, Pritchard J, Andrady U, Gwynedd Y, Rajda N, Maw R, McKernan S, Drake S, Gilleran G, White D, Ross J, Toomer S, Hewart R, Wilding H, Woodward R, Dean G, Heald L, Horner P, Glover S, Bansaal D, Eduards S, Carne C, Browing M, Das R, Stanley B, Estreich S, Magdy A, O'Mahony C, Fraser P, Hayman B, Jebakumar SP, Joshi U, Ralph S, Wade A, Mette R, Lalik J, Summerfield H, El-Dalil A, France AJ, White C, Robertson R, Gordon S, McMillan S, Morris S, Lean C, Morris S, Vithayathil K, McLean L, Winter A, Gale D, Jacobs S, Tayal S, Short L, Roberts M, Green S, Williams G, Sivakumar K, Bhattacharyya DN, Monteiro E, Minton J, Dhar J, Nye F, DeSouza CB, Isaksen A, McDonald L, McLean K, Franca A, Hawkins D, William L, Jendrulek I, Shaunak S, El-Gadi S, Easterbrook PJ, Mazhude C, Gilson R, Johnstone R, Fakoya A, Mchale J, Waters A, Kegg S, Mitchell S, Byrne P, Johnson M, Rice P, Fidler S, Mullaney SA, McCormack S, David D, Melville R, Phillip K, Balachandran T, Mabey-Puttock S, Sukthankar A, Murphy C, Wilkins E, Ahmad S, Tayal S, Haynes J, Evans E, Ong E, Das R, Grey R, Meaden J, Bignell C, Loay D, Peacock K, Girgis MR, Morgan B, Palfreeman A, Wilcox J, Tobin J, Tucker L, Saeed AM, Chen F, Deheragada A, Williams O, Lacey H, Herman S, Kinghorn D, Devendra SV, Wither J, Dawson S, Rowen D, Harvey J, Wilkins E, Bridgwood A, Singh G, Chauhan M, Kellock D, Young S, Dannino S, Kathir Y, Rooney G, Currie J, Fitzgerald M, Devendra S, Keane F, Booth G, Green T, Arumainayyagam J, Chandramani S, Rajamanoharan S, Robinson T, Curless E, Gokhale R, Tariq A, Roberts M, Williams O, Luzzi G, FitzGerald M, Fairley I, Wallis F, Smit E, Ward F, Molina JM, Morlat P, Bonarek M, Bonnet F, Nouts C, Louis J, Raffi F, Reliquet V, Sauser F, Biron C, Mounoury O, Hue H, Brosseau D, Delfraissy JF, Goujard C, Ghosn J, Rannou MT, Bergmann JF, Badsi E, Rami A, Diemer M, Parrinello M, Girard PM, Samanon-Bollens D, Campa P, Tourneur M, Desplanques N, Livrozet JM, Jeanblanc F, Chiarello P, Makhloufi D, Blanc AP, Allègre T, Reynes J, Baillat V, Lemoing V, de Boever CM, Tramoni C, Cabié A, Sobesky G, Abel S, Beaujolais V, Pialoux G, Slama L, Chakvetadze C, Berrebi V, Yeni P, Bouvet E, Fournier I, Gerbe J, Trepo C, Koffi K, Augustin-Normand C, Miailhes P, Thoirain V, Brochier C, Thomas R, Souala F, Ratajczak M, Beytoux J, Jacomet C, Gourdon F, Rouveix E, Morelon S, Dupont C, Olivier C, Lortholary O, Dupont B, Viard JP, Maignan A, Ragnaud JM, Raymond I, Leport C, Jadand C, Jestin C, Longuet P, Boucherit S, Sereni D, Lascoux C, Prevoteau F, Sobel A, Levy Y, Lelièvre JD, Lascaux AS, Dominguez S, Dumont C, Aumaître H, Delmas B, Saada M, Medus M, Guillevin L, Salmon D, Tahi T, Yazdanpanah Y, Pavel S, Marien MC, Drenou B, Beck-Wirth G, Beck C, Benomar M, Katlama C, Tubiana R, Mohand HA, Chermak A, Abdallah SB, Bentata M, Touam F, Hoen B, Drobacheff C, Folzer A, Massip P, Obadia M, Prudhomme L, Bonnet E, Balzarin F, Pichard E, Chennebault JM, Fialaire P, Loison J, Galanaud P, Boué F, Bornarel D, Verdon R, Bazin C, Six M, Ferret P, Weiss L, Batisse D, Gonzales-Canali G, Tisne-Dessus D, Devidas A, Chevojon P, Turpault I, Lafeuillade A, Cheret A, Philip G, Morel P, Timsit J, Herson S, Amirat N, Simon A, Brancion C, Cabane J, Picard O, Tredup J, Desplanques N, Stein A, Ravault I, Chavanet C, Buisson M, Treuvetot S, Choutet P, Nau P, Bastides F, May T, Boyer L, Wassoumbou S, Oksenhendeler E, Gérard L, Bernard L, De Truchis P, Berthé H, Domart Y, Merrien D, Belan AG, Gayraud M, Bodard L, Meudec A, Beuscart C, Daniel C, Pape E, Vinceneux P, Simonpoli AM, Zeng A, Fournier L, Fuzibet JG, Sohn C, Rosenthal E, Quaranta M, Dellamonica P, Chaillou S, Sabah M, Audhuy B, Schieber A, Moreau P, Niault M, Vaillant O, Huchon G, Compagnucci A, Szmania Ide L, Richier L, Lamaury I, Saint-Dizier F, Garipuy D, Gastaut JA, Drogoul MP, Martin IP, Fabre G, de Cursay GL, Abraham B, Perino C, Lagarde P, David F, Roche-Sicot J, Saraux JL, Leprêtre A, Fampin B, Uludag A, Morin AS, Bletry O, Zucman D, Regnier A, Girard JJ, Quinsat DT, Heripret L, Grihon F, Houlbert D, Ruel M, Chemlal K, Caron F, Debab Y, Tremollieres F, Perronne V, Lepeu G, Slama B, Perré P, Miodovski C, Guermonprez G, Dulioust A, Boudon P, Malbec D, Patey O, Semaille C, Deville J, Remy G, Béguinot I, Galanaud P, Boue F, Chambrin V, Pignon C, Estocq GA, Levy A, Delfraissy JF, Goujard C, Duracinsky M, Le Bras P, Ngussan MS, Peretti D, Medintzeff N, Lambert T, Segeral O, Lezeau P, Laurian Y, Weiss L, Buisson M, Piketty C, Karmochkine M, Batisse D, Eliaszewitch M, Jayle D, Tisne- Dessus D, Kazatchkine M, Leport C, Colasante U, Jadand C, Jestin C, Duval X, Nouaouia W, Boucherit S, Vilde JL, Girard PM, Bollens D, Binet D, Diallo B, Meyohas MC, Fonquernie L, Lagneau JL, Salmon D, Guillevin L, Tahi T, Launay O, Pietrie MP, Sicard D, Stieltjes N, Michot J, Sobel A, Levy Y, Bourdillon F, Lascaux AS, Lelievre JD, Dumont C, Dupont B, Obenga G, Viard JP, Maignan A, Vittecoq D, Escaut L, Bolliot C, Bricaire F, Katlama C, Schneider L, Herson S, Simon A, Iguertsira M, Stein A, Tomei C, Ravaux I, Dhiver C, Dupont HT, Vallon A, Gallais J, Gallais H, Gastaut JA, Drogoul MP, Fabre G, Dellamonica P, Durant J, Mondain V, Perbost I, Cassuto JP, Karsenti JM, Venti H, Fuzibet JG, Rosenthal E, Ceppi C, Quaranta M, Krivitsky JA, Bentata M, Bouchaud O, Honore P, Sereni D, Lascoux C, Delgado J, Rouzioux C, Burgard M, Boufassa L, Peynet J, Hoyos SP, Ferreros I, Hurtado I, del Amo J, Jarrín I, González C, Caro AM, Muga R, Sanvicens A, Clotet B, Tor J, del Romero J, Raposo P, Rodríguez C, García S, Alastrue I, Belda J, Trullen P, Fernández E, Santos C, Tasa T, Zafra T, Guerrero R, Marco A, Quintana M, Ruiz I, Nuñez R, Pérez R, Castilla J, Guevara M, de Mendoza C, Zahonero N.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on mortality among HIV-infected individuals after appropriate adjustment for time-varying confounding by indication.

DESIGN:

A collaboration of 12 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States (the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration) that includes 62 760 HIV-infected, therapy-naive individuals followed for an average of 3.3 years. Inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models was used to adjust for measured confounding by indication.

RESULTS:

Two thousand and thirty-nine individuals died during the follow-up. The mortality hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.57) for cART initiation versus no initiation. In analyses stratified by CD4 cell count at baseline, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.29 (0.22-0.37) for less than 100 cells/microl, 0.33 (0.25-0.44) for 100 to less than 200 cells/microl, 0.38 (0.28-0.52) for 200 to less than 350 cells/microl, 0.55 (0.41-0.74) for 350 to less than 500 cells/microl, and 0.77 (0.58-1.01) for 500 cells/microl or more. The estimated hazard ratio varied with years since initiation of cART from 0.57 (0.49-0.67) for less than 1 year since initiation to 0.21 (0.14-0.31) for 5 years or more (P value for trend <0.001).

CONCLUSION:

We estimated that cART halved the average mortality rate in HIV-infected individuals. The mortality reduction was greater in those with worse prognosis at the start of follow-up.

PMID:
19770621
PMCID:
PMC2920287
DOI:
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283324283
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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