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J Virol. 1990 Nov;64(11):5605-10.

Two receptors are required for antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: CD4 and Fc gamma R.

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Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01655.


Evidence of antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection via Fc receptor (FcR) was published previously (A. Takeda, C. U. Tuazon, and F. A. Ennis, Science 242:580-583, 1988). To define the entry mechanism of HIV-1 complexed with anti-HIV-1 antibody, we attempted to determine the receptor molecules responsible for mediating enhancement of HIV-1 infection of monocytic cells. Monoclonal antibodies to FcRI for immunoglobulin G substantially blocked antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate a requirement for the CD4 molecule in antibody-enhanced HIV-1 infection via FcR. Soluble CD4 prevented infection by HIV-1 antibody-treated virus, and enhancement of infection of virus-antibody complexes was abrogated by a monoclonal antibody to CD4 (anti-Leu3a antibody). Treatment of human macrophages with an anti-CD4 antibody also inhibited antibody-enhanced HIV-1 infection of macrophages, supporting our contention that antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection via FcR requires CD4 interaction with the virus glycoprotein.

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