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Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 Aug;87(4):605-20. doi: 10.1139/o09-018.

Cadmium attenuates bradykinin-driven nitric oxide production by interplaying with the localization pattern of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

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Vascular Biology Lab, Life Sciences Division, AU-KBC Research Centre, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044, Tamil Nadu, India.


Cadmium, a ubiquitous heavy metal, interferes with endothelial functions and angiogenesis. Bradykinin is a Ca-mobilizing soluble peptide that acts via nitric oxide to promote vasodilation and capillary permeability. The objective of the present study was to explore the Cd implications in bradykinin-dependent endothelial functions. An egg yolk angiogenesis model was employed to evaluate the effect of Cd on bradykinin-induced angiogenesis. The results demonstrate that 100 nmol/L Cd attenuated bradykinin-dependent angiogenesis. The results of the in vitro wound healing and tube formation assays by using EAhy 926, a transformed endothelial cell line, suggest that Cd blocked bradykinin-mediated endothelial migration and tube formation by 38% and 67%, respectively, while nitric oxide supplementation could reverse the effect of Cd on bradykinin-induced endothelial migration by 94%. The detection of nitric oxide by using a DAF-2DA fluorescent probe, Griess assay, and ultrasensitive electrode suggests that Cd blocked bradykinin-induced nitric oxide production. Fluorescence imaging of eNOS-GFP transfected endothelial cells, immunofluorescence, and Western blot studies of Cd and bradykinin-treated cells show that Cd interfered with the localization pattern of eNOS, which possibly attenuates nitric oxide production in part. Additionally, Ca imaging of Cd- and bradykinin-treated cells suggests that Cd blocked bradykinin-dependent Ca influx into the cells, thus partially blocking Ca-dependent nitric oxide production in endothelial cells. The results of this study conclude that Cd blunted the effect of bradykinin by interfering with the Ca-associated NOS activity specifically by impeding subcellular trafficking of eNOS.

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