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J Small Anim Pract. 2009 Sep;50 Suppl 1:3-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00801.x.

Neurohormonal activation in canine degenerative mitral valve disease: implications on pathophysiology and treatment.

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Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Delancey St., Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.


Neurohormonal systems play a critical role in canine degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD). DMVD results in mitral regurgitation, which reduces forward cardiac output and increases intracardiac pressures. These changes trigger neurohormonal responses that ultimately result in maladaptive cardiac remodelling, congestion and heightened morbidity and mortality. Medical therapies such as ACE inhibitors and spironolactone derive their benefit by interrupting or suppressing these neurohormonal responses. Thus, knowledge of neurohormonal mechanisms can lead to a better understanding of how to treat DMVD.

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