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Immunol Res. 2010 Mar;46(1-3):23-31. doi: 10.1007/s12026-009-8120-y.

Cancer vaccine with mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens.

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Department of Immunology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.


The GD2 ganglioside, displayed by five carbohydrate Neu5Acalpha2-8Neu5Acalpha2-3(GalNAcbeta1-4)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta residues attached to a ceramide chain that anchors the ganglioside in the cell membrane, is expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors. GD2 has been used as a target for passive and active immunotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma. We have generated 47-LDA mimotope of GD2 by screening a phage display peptide library with anti-GD2 mAb 14G2a and reported that vaccination with the 47-LDA mimotope elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses as well as MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells to syngeneic neuroblastoma tumor cells. The cytotoxic activity of the vaccine-induced CTLs was independent of GD2 expression, suggesting recognition of a novel tumor-associated antigen cross-reacting with 47-LDA. Immunoblotting studies using 14G2a mAb demonstrated that this antibody cross-reacts with a 105 kDa glycoprotein expressed by GD2(+) and GD2(-) neuroblastoma and melanoma cells. Functional studies of tumor cells grown in three-dimensional (3D) collagen cultures with 14G2a mAb showed decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, a process regulated by 105 kDa activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (ALCAM/CD166). The CD166 glycoprotein was shown to be recognized by 14G2a antibody, and inhibition of CD166 expression by RNA interference ablated the cell sensitivity to lysis by 47-LDA-induced CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the vaccine-induced CTLs recognize a 47-LDA cross-reactive epitope expressed by CD166 and reveal a novel mechanism of induction of potent tumor-specific cellular responses by mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens.

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