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J Virol. 2009 Dec;83(23):12253-65. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01395-09. Epub 2009 Sep 16.

The CDK inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1 is induced by FcgammaR activation and restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and related primate lentiviruses in human macrophages.

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Institut Pasteur, Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales, Paris, France.


Macrophages are major targets of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We have previously shown that aggregation of activating immunoglobulin G Fc receptors (FcgammaR) by immune complexes inhibits reverse transcript accumulation and integration of HIV-1 and related lentiviruses in monocyte-derived macrophages. Here, we show that FcgammaR-mediated restriction of HIV-1 is not due to enhanced degradation of incoming viral proteins or cDNA and is associated to the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1/WAF1) (p21). Small interfering RNA-mediated p21 knockdown rescued viral replication in FcgammaR-activated macrophages and enhanced HIV-1 infection in unstimulated macrophages by increasing reverse transcript and integrated DNA levels. p21 induction by other stimuli, such as phorbol myristate acetate and the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275, was also associated with preintegrative blocks of HIV-1 replication in macrophages. Binding of p21 to reverse transcription/preintegration complex-associated HIV-1 proteins was not detected in yeast two-hybrid, pulldown, or coimmunoprecipitation assays, suggesting that p21 may affect viral replication independently of a specific interaction with an HIV-1 component. Consistently, p21 silencing rescued viral replication from the FcgammaR-mediated restriction also in simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac)- and HIV-2-infected macrophages. Our results point to a role of p21 as an inhibitory factor of lentiviral infection in macrophages and to its implication in FcgammaR-mediated restriction.

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