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J Urol. 2009 Nov;182(5):2212-7. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.07.021. Epub 2009 Sep 16.

Prostate cancer early detection program recruitment methods and show rates in men at high risk.

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  • 1Cancer Screening Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.



Men with a family history of prostate cancer and black men are at higher risk for prostate cancer. Recruitment and retention of these men at high risk into early detection programs is challenging. We report a comprehensive analysis of recruitment methods, show rates and participant factors from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program, a prospective, longitudinal prostate cancer screening study.


Men 35 to 69 years old were eligible for recruitment if they had a family history of prostate cancer, were black or had a BRCA1/2 mutation. Recruitment methods were analyzed using standard statistical methods with respect to participant demographics and presentation to the first program appointment.


Of 707 men recruited 64.9% presented to the initial program appointment. More men were recruited via radio than via referral or other methods (chi-square = 298.13, p <0.0001). Men recruited by radio were more likely to be black (p <0.001), less educated (p = 0.003) and not married or partnered (p = 0.007), and have no prostate cancer family history (p <0.001). Men recruited by referral had a higher income (p = 0.007) and were more likely to attend the initial program visit than those recruited by radio or other methods (chi-square = 27.08, p <0.0001).


This comprehensive analysis shows that radio led to higher recruitment of black men with lower socioeconomic status. However, these men at high risk have a lower presentation rate for prostate cancer screening. Targeted motivational measures must be studied to improve the show rate for prostate cancer risk assessment in these men at high risk.

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