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J Inherit Metab Dis. 2009 Dec;32 Suppl 1:S313-9. doi: 10.1007/s10545-009-1262-1. Epub 2009 Sep 7.

Cardiomyopathy in the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG): a case of late presentation and literature review.

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Metabolic Medicine Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children with UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK.


The congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a recently described group of inherited multisystem disorders characterized by defects predominantly of N- and O-glycosylation of proteins. Cardiomyopathy in CDG has previously been described in several subtypes; it is usually associated with high morbidity and mortality and the majority of cases present in the first 2 years of life. This is the first case with presentation in late childhood and the article reviews current literature. An 11-year-old female with a background of learning difficulties presented in cardiac failure secondary to severe dilated cardiomyopathy. Prior to the diagnosis of CDG, her condition deteriorated; she required mechanical support (Excor Berlin Heart) and was listed for cardiac transplant. Investigations included screening for glycosylation disorders, and isoelectric focusing of transferrin revealed an abnormal type 1 pattern. Analysis of phosphomannomutase and phosphomannose isomerase showed normal enzyme activity, excluding PMM2 (CDG Ia) and MPI (CDG Ib). Lipid-linked oligosaccharide and mutational studies have not yet defined the defect. Despite aggressive therapy there were persistent difficulties achieving adequate anticoagulation and she developed multiple life-threatening thrombotic complications. She was removed from the transplant list and died from overwhelming sepsis 5 weeks following admission. This case emphasizes the need to screen all children with an undiagnosed cardiomyopathy for CDG, regardless of age, and where possible to exclude CDG before the use of cardiac bridging devices. It highlights the many practical and ethical challenges that may be encountered where clinical knowledge and experience are still evolving.

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