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Clin Transl Sci. 2008 Sep;1(2):168-171. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2008.00039.x.

Strategies for therapeutic repair: The "R(3)" regenerative medicine paradigm.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.


Beyond the palliative reach of today, medical therapies of tomorrow aim to treat the root cause of chronic degenerative diseases. Therapeutic repair encompasses the converging triad of rejuvenation, regeneration or replacement strategies that rely on self-healing processes, stem cell regeneration, and/or organ transplantation. Natural healing or rejuvenation exemplify inherent, baseline repair secured by tissue self-renewal and de novo cell biogenesis, particularly effective in organs with a high endogenous reparative capacity. Transplant medicine exploits the replacement strategy as a valuable option to recycle used parts and restore failing organ function by means of exogenous substitutes-it is, however, limited by donor shortage. Stem cell-based regeneration offers the next frontier of medical therapy through delivery of essentially unlimited pools of autologous or allogeneic, naive or modified, progenitor cells to achieve structural and functional repair. Translation into clinical applications requires the establishment of a regenerative medicine community of practice capable to bridge discovery with personalized treatment solutions. Indeed, this multidisciplinary specialized workforce will be capable to integrate the new science of embryology, immunology, and stem cell biology into bioinformatics and network medicine platforms, ensuring implementation of therapeutic repair strategies into individualized disease management algorithms.


regenerative medicine; therapeutic repair; tissue regeneration

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