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PLoS One. 2009 Sep 16;4(9):e7046. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007046.

Ligand modulated antagonism of PPARgamma by genomic and non-genomic actions of PPARdelta.

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Biomedical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, United Kingdom.



Members of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor, PPAR, subfamily of nuclear receptors display complex opposing and overlapping functions and a wide range of pharmacological and molecular genetic tools have been used to dissect their specific functions. Non-agonist bound PPARdelta has been shown to repress PPAR Response Element, PPRE, signalling and several lines of evidence point to the importance of PPARdelta repressive actions in both cardiovascular and cancer biology.


In this report we have employed transient transfections and luciferase reporter gene technology to study the repressing effects of PPARdelta and two derivatives thereof. We demonstrate for the first time that the classical dominant negative deletion of the Activation Function 2, AF2, domain of PPARdelta show enhanced repression of PPRE signalling in the presence of a PPARdelta agonist. We propose that the mechanism for the phenomenon is increased RXR heterodimerisation and DNA binding upon ligand binding concomitant with transcriptional co-repressor binding. We also demonstrated ligand-dependent dominant negative action of a DNA non-binding derivative of PPARdelta on PPARgamma1 signalling. This activity was abolished upon over-expression of RXRalpha suggesting a role for PPAR/cofactor competition in the absence of DNA binding.


These findings are important in understanding the wide spectrum of molecular interactions in which PPARdelta and PPARgamma have opposing biological roles and suggest novel paradigms for the design of different functional classes of nuclear receptor antagonist drugs.

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