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Reproduction. 2009 Dec;138(6):883-93. doi: 10.1530/REP-09-0147. Epub 2009 Sep 15.

Regulation of endometrial vascular remodelling: role of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the angiopoietin-TIE signalling system.

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Centre for Women's Health Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3168, Australia.


Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and vascular maturation occur on a regular, physiological basis in human endometrium. These processes form part of a continuum of vascular remodelling involving numerous regulatory factors. Key factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A, VEGFC and VEGFD, and their associated receptors VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3. A second group of vascular regulatory proteins belongs to the angiopoietin (ANG)-TIE system. Although members of the VEGF family and the ANG-TIE system are represented in the endometrium, our understanding of how these different molecules interact to regulate remodelling of the blood and lymphatic vasculature present in the endometrium is still limited. A review of the current information is provided.

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