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Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Aug;23(4):487-98. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2009.03.003.

Clinical results of treating type 2 diabetic patients with sitagliptin, vildagliptin or saxagliptin--diabetes control and potential adverse events.

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Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.


Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a novel oral treatment for type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 inhibition increases insulin secretion and reduces glucagon secretion by preventing the inactivation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), thereby lowering glucose levels. Several DPP-4 inhibitors are in clinical development; more studies exist for sitagliptin and vildagliptin. They improve metabolic control in type 2 diabetes in monotherapy and also in combination with metformin, sulphonylurea and thiazolidinediones. HbA(1c) is reduced by approximately 0.6-1.1% in studies up to 52 weeks. Similar, although more limited, results were obtained for saxagliptin. DPP-4 inhibitors are safe and tolerable with no increased risk of adverse events compared to placebo and have a low risk of hypoglycaemia. DPP-4 inhibitors are body weight-neutral. The DPP-4 inhibitors are recommended for use in the early stage of type 2 diabetes, in combination with metformin in subjects with inadequate glycaemic control. DPP-4 inhibition may also be used in combination with sulphonylurea and thiazolidinediones and potentially also in combination with insulin. The durability and long-term safety of DPP-4 inhibitors remain to be established.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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