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Ophthalmology. 2009 Nov;116(11):2058-63.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.04.037. Epub 2009 Sep 10.

Proposed diagnostic criteria for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction.

Author information

1
Itoh Clinic, Saitama, Japan. ritoh@za2.so-net.ne.jp

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To compare clinical findings between patients with obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and normal controls and to propose diagnostic criteria for obstructive MGD.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional, observational case series.

PARTICIPANTS:

Fifty-three eyes of 53 patients (18 men, 35 women; age [mean +/- standard deviation] 71.4 +/- 10.0 years) who were diagnosed with obstructive MGD and 60 eyes of 60 healthy volunteers (22 men, 38 women; 71.0 +/- 9.3 years) as a control group.

METHODS:

Ocular symptoms were scored from 0 to 14 according to the number of existing symptoms. Lid margin abnormality was scored from 0 to 4 depending on the number of existing abnormalities. Meibomian gland changes were scored from 0 to 6 based on noncontact meibography (meibo-score). Superficial punctuate keratopathy (SPK) was scored from 0 to 3. Meibum was graded from 0 to 3 depending on the volume and quality. Tear film production was evaluated by Schirmer's test. Receiver operating characteristic curves with calculations of area under the curve (AUC) were used to describe the accuracy of each parameter to differentiate obstructive MGD from normal eyes.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Ocular symptom score, lid margin abnormality score, meibo-score, meibum score, SPK score, tear film breakup time (BUT), and the Schirmer value.

RESULTS:

Ocular symptom score, lid margin abnormality score, meibo-score, meibum score, and SPK score were significantly higher in the obstructive MGD group than in the control group (P<0.0001 for all scores). The BUT was significantly shorter in the obstructive MGD group than in the control group (P<0.0001). The AUC values indicated that the ocular symptom score had the highest diagnostic power as a single parameter, followed by the lid margin abnormality score, meibo-score, and BUT.

CONCLUSIONS:

Based on these findings, we recommend that physicians use the ocular symptom score, lid margin abnormality score, and meibo-score to diagnose MGD. Obstructive MGD should be suspected when any 2 of the 3 scores are abnormal. Obstructive MGD is very likely when all 3 scores are abnormal.

PMID:
19744718
DOI:
10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.04.037
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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