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Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2009 Dec;16(6):698-704. doi: 10.1097/HJR.0b013e32833158e4.

Effect of a sequential training programme on inflammatory, prothrombotic and vascular remodelling biomarkers in hypertensive overweight patients with or without metabolic syndrome.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Aging and Kidney Diseases, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.



It is not known whether serum level of vascular remodelling parameters, such as matrix metalloproteinases could be modulated by physical activity and whether the eventual change could be influenced by metabolic syndrome (MS) diagnosis.


Open, intervention study to evaluate the effects of a sequential physical activity training on inflammatory, prothrombotic and vascular remodelling biomarkers in overweight patients with and without MS.


We enrolled 80 overweight patients (mean age: 62.9+/-8.3 years; male : female = 36 : 44) with newly diagnosed hypertension, with or without MS. After 3 months of American Heart Association step 2 diet, they followed a sequential training programme including 56 days of added three metabolic equivalent tasks/week and 56 days of six metabolic equivalent tasks/week.


All patients experienced a significant decrease in body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure after both the training phases. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterolemia, triglycerides, and glycaemia significantly improved only after the intensive training phase compared with the baseline in MS patients. Prothrombotic parameters improved irrespectively from the MS diagnosis. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein P level significantly decreased towards baseline and towards the previous phase, after exercise intensification, but only in MS patients. The plasma level of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, and their activated forms improved significantly when compared with the baseline both after the first and the second training period, independently from the MS diagnosis.


Diagnosis of MS is a determinant of changes in metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, but not of the prothrombotic and vascular remodelling ones in a sample of overweight hypertensive patients.

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