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Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009 Oct;51 Suppl 4:154-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03420.x.

Review of electrical stimulation in cerebral palsy and recommendations for future directions.

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Alfred E Mann Foundation for Scientific Research, Santa Clarita, CA, USA.


Electrical stimulation (ES) for treatment of neuromuscular disorders is introduced. Various forms of ES are defined. Characteristics of cerebral palsy (CP) and treatment options are given. The clinical objectives of ES for CP treatment are stated. A review of the literature for treatment in CP is given. Several common themes within the literature and limitations in prior studies are explored. The majority of studies have used surface stimulation, which has several inherent limitations. To address these limitations, implanted devices may be used. Implanted device systems include percutaneous stimulation systems, and fully implantable leaded systems. While both of these technologies have advantages over surface stimulation, they also have their own limitations. To further address the limitations of percutaneous and fully implantable leaded systems, the Alfred Mann Foundation has developed a completely implantable, telemetered device known as the Radio Frequency Microstimulator (RFM). Results from a study using the RFM for arm rehabilitation in poststroke patients are given. A list of desirable design features for an ES system for CP is given. The next generation microstimulator device under development at the Alfred Mann Foundation is presented. This device may well serve the needs for ES in CP.

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