Send to

Choose Destination
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Sep;20(7):332-40. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2009.04.001. Epub 2009 Sep 3.

Mitochondrial generation of free radicals and hypoxic signaling.

Author information

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.


Most reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in cells by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mitochondrial ROS production is modulated largely by the rate of electron flow through respiratory chain complexes. Recently, it has become clear that under hypoxic conditions, the mitochondrial respiratory chain also produces nitric oxide (NO), which can generate other reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Although excess ROS and RNS can lead to oxidative and nitrosative stress, moderate to low levels of both function in cellular signaling pathways. Especially important are the roles of these mitochondrially generated free radicals in hypoxic signaling pathways, which have important implications for cancer, inflammation and a variety of other diseases.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center