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Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Feb;56(1):4-17. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.08.013. Epub 2009 Sep 3.

Human health risk assessment of endosulfan. I: Toxicology and hazard identification.

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Department of Pesticide Regulation, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA 95812, USA.


Endosulfan is persistent in the environment and toxic to wildlife. Legal mandates necessitate that a risk assessments be performed for endosulfan by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This hazard identification (hazard ID) compared critical no-observed effect levels (NOEL) for acute, subchronic and chronic exposure intervals between the agencies. NOELs were discussed in light of their application to numerous exposure scenarios (occupational, general population and dietary). Only the acute oral NOELs differed between CDPR (0.7 mg/kg/day) and USEPA (1.5 mg/kg/day). Pregnant rabbits were considered by CDPR to be more responsive to low gavage doses of endosulfan than non-pregnant female or male rats in the acute study selected by USEPA. NOELs for other exposure routes and durations were similar between agencies. CDPR and USEPA concurred that a Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA, 1996) Safety Factor is not needed after evaluating all studies including a Developmental Neurotoxicity study. The SF was reduced to 1x. NOELs generated from this hazard ID will be used to calculate the Margins of Exposure for all scenarios and subsequently the risk characterization for endosulfan.

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