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J Interv Cardiol. 2009 Dec;22(6):556-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8183.2009.00500.x. Epub 2009 Sep 2.

Sodium bicarbonate versus sodium chloride and oral N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in advanced chronic kidney disease.

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Nephrology Unit, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.



Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. Multiple clinical studies have proposed several preventive strategies.


To examine the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium chloride and oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for preventive hydration after cardiac catheterization.


We conducted a prospective, single-center trial. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III-IV undergoing cardiac catheterization were allocated to receive either an infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride and oral NAC or 154 mEq/L sodium bicarbonate. MAIN: Outcome measure CI-AKI, defined as an increase of 25% or 0.3 mg/dL or more in plasma creatinine within 2 days of contrast administration.


Ninety-three patients were allocated to one of the two groups: 42 patients in the saline plus NAC group and 51 patients in the bicarbonate group. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the most important clinical and procedural characteristics. Baseline plasma creatinine levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate, incidence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and contrast medium volume were similar. Mean plasma creatinine concentration was 1.76 +/- 0.54 mg/dL in the saline and NAC group and 1.9 +/- 1 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group (P = 0.23). The rate of CI-AKI was 9.8% in the bicarbonate group and 8.4% in the saline plus NAC group. No patient required renal replacement therapy.


Hydration with sodium bicarbonate is not more effective than hydration with sodium chloride and oral NAC for prophylaxis of CI-AKI in patients with CKD stage III-IV undergoing cardiac catheterization.

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