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J Biol Chem. 1990 Jul 15;265(20):11982-9.

Molecular defect (Gla+14----Lys) and its functional consequences in a hereditary factor X deficiency (factor X "Vorarlberg").

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Department of Medicine and Pathology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599.


Factor X (FX) "Vorarlberg" is a congenital FX deficiency characterized clinically by a mild bleeding tendency. Homozygous individuals have a FX activity of less than 10% in the extrinsic system and 25% in the intrinsic system. FX antigen is 20%. Using molecular techniques, two point mutations were detected in the coding sequence of the FX Vorarlberg gene: a G----A at base pair 160 in exon II resulting in a change of Gla14 (GAA) to Lys (AAA); a G----A at base pair 424 in exon V resulting in a change from Glu102 (GAG) to Lys (AAG). The mutations abolished a TaqI restriction site in exon II and an MnlI site in exon V. To determine whether these mutations are present on one or on both alleles, restriction analyses of amplified exon II and exon V fragments were performed. Analysis of the pedigree showed that the genotype for the mutation on exon II (homozygous versus heterozygous) correlates with the severity of the phenotypic coagulation defect. We therefore conclude that the mutation in exon II is responsible for the functional defect in FX Vorarlberg. We have also purified the mutant FX protein from patient plasma. Purified FX Vorarlberg is indistinguishable from normal FX on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its activity is 15% of normal FX upon activation with factor VIIa/tissue factor, 75% upon activation with factor IXa/factor VIIIa, and 100% upon activation with RVV. Activation at varying Ca2+ concentrations shows that the affinity of FX Vorarlberg for Ca2+ is decreased. Factor Xa Vorarlberg is able to convert prothrombin at a normal rate but also shows decreased affinity for Ca2+ in this interaction. Upon addition of Ca2+, FX Vorarlberg does not undergo the same conformational change as normal FX. Our data show that FX Vorarlberg has a decreased affinity for Ca2+ which impedes a normal conformational change. This leads to a decreased rate of activation by factor VIIa/tissue factor and by factor IXa. The decrease is much more marked for the extrinsic than for the intrinsic pathway.

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