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Ann Surg. 2009 Oct;250(4):540-8. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181b674df.

Three hundred and one consecutive extended right hepatectomies: evaluation of outcome based on systematic liver volumetry.

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Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 444, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030–4009, USA.



This study aimed to determine the effect of preoperative liver volumetry on postoperative outcomes after extended right hepatectomy. Primary end point was to evaluate whether future liver remnant (FLR)/standardized liver volume ratio (sFLR) >20% is sufficient for a safe hepatic resection. Secondary end point was to assess whether preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) is associated with improved outcome in patients with initial sFLR ≤ 20%.


An sFLR >20% of the total liver volume has been proposed as sufficient for safe hepatic resection, but this concept has not been validated in a large series. In addition, recent reports suggest preoperative PVE is indicated for sFLR <30%.


The impact of sFLR and PVE on short-term outcomes (postoperative complications, liver insufficiency, and 90-day mortality) was analyzed in 301 consecutive patients after extended right hepatectomy. Liver volumetry accounted for partial resection of segment IV. Liver insufficiency was defined as peak postoperative serum bilirubin >7 mg/dL. Predictors of liver insufficiency were identified by multivariate logistic regression.


Postoperative liver insufficiency occurred in 45 patients (15%) and accounted for 61% of deaths. Among 290 patients who underwent liver volumetry, sFLR was <20% in 38 patients, 20.1% to 30% in 144, and ≥ 30% in 108. Rates of postoperative liver insufficiency and death from liver failure were similar between patients with sFLR 20.1% to 30% and sFLR ≥ 30% but higher in patients with sFLR ≤ 20% (P 0.05). Postoperative outcomes were similar between patients with increase in sFLR from ≤ 20% to >20% after PVE and patients with initial sFLR >20%. Multivariate analysis revealed that body mass index >25 kg/m2, intraoperative blood transfusion, and sFLR ≤ 20% (odds ratio = 3.18; 95% CI, 1.34-7.54) independently predicted postoperative liver insufficiency.


Systematic measurement of FLR volume is important to select patients for PVE and extended right hepatectomy. A sFLR >20% is sufficient for safe hepatic resection and sFLR 20.1% to 30% is not an indication for preoperative PVE.

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