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Can J Vet Res. 1990 Apr;54 Suppl:S48-52.

Molecular aspects of virulence of Pasteurella haemolytica.

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1
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078.

Abstract

Pasteurella haemolytica is represented by two biotypes (A and T), 15 serotypes, and numerous untypable strains. Specific biotypes and serotypes are associated with fibrinous pleuropneumonia (pneumonic pasteurellosis) in cattle, sheep, and goats, septicemic pasteurellosis in lambs, and mastitis in ewes. Four virulence factors have been associated with P. haemolytica: fimbriae, a polysaccharide capsule, endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)], and leukotoxin (LKT). The interactions of these virulence factors with components of the pulmonary alveolus are discussed as a model for the pathogenesis of pasteurellosis. Fimbriae on P. haemolytica may enhance colonization of the upper respiratory tract. The capsule of P. haemolytica varies in composition among serotypes. It inhibits complement-mediated serum killing as well as phagocytosis and intracellular killing of P. haemolytica. The capsule enhances neutrophil directed migration and adhesion of P. haemolytica to alveolar epithelium. Pasteurella haemolytica LPS can alter bovine leukocyte functions, by dose-dependent inhibition or augmentation; it is directly toxic to bovine endothelium; it modifies cardiopulmonary hemodynamics; and it elevates circulatory prostanoids, serotonin, cAMP, and cGMP. Leukotoxin is produced by all known serotypes and many untypable strains. Leukotoxin is a poreforming cytolysin that affects ruminant leukocytes and platelets by altering function at low levels but causing lysis at high levels.

PMID:
1972901
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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