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Trends Mol Med. 2009 Sep;15(9):391-404. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2009.06.007. Epub 2009 Aug 31.

Protein S-nitrosylation in health and disease: a current perspective.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Abstract

Protein S-nitrosylation constitutes a large part of the ubiquitous influence of nitric oxide on cellular signal transduction and accumulating evidence indicates important roles for S-nitrosylation both in normal physiology and in a broad spectrum of human diseases. Here we review recent findings that implicate S-nitrosylation in cardiovascular, pulmonary, musculoskeletal and neurological (dys)function, as well as in cancer. The emerging picture shows that, in many cases, pathophysiology correlates with hypo- or hyper-S-nitrosylation of specific protein targets rather than a general cellular insult due to loss of or enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity. In addition, it is increasingly evident that dysregulated S-nitrosylation can not only result from alterations in the expression, compartmentalization and/or activity of nitric oxide synthases, but can also reflect a contribution from denitrosylases, including prominently the S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO)-metabolizing enzyme GSNO reductase. Finally, because exogenous mediators of protein S-nitrosylation or denitrosylation can substantially affect the development or progression of disease, potential therapeutic agents that modulate S-nitrosylation could well have broad clinical utility.

PMID:
19726230
PMCID:
PMC3106339
DOI:
10.1016/j.molmed.2009.06.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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