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Cancer Res. 2009 Sep 15;69(18):7480-5. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3350. Epub 2009 Sep 1.

Confounding effects in "A six-gene signature predicting breast cancer lung metastasis".


The majority of breast cancer deaths result from metastases rather than from direct effects of the primary tumor itself. Recently, Landemaine and colleagues described a six-gene signature purported to predict lung metastasis risk. They analyzed gene expression in 23 metastases from breast cancer patients (5 lung, 18 non-lung) identifying a 21-gene signature. Expression of 16 of these was analyzed in primary breast tumors from 72 patients with known outcome, and six were selected that were predictive of lung metastases: DSC2, TFCP2L1, UGT8, ITGB8, ANP32E, and FERMT1. Despite the value of such a signature, our analysis indicates that this analysis ignored potentially important confounding factors and that their signature is instead a surrogate for molecular subtype.

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