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Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2009 Jun;59(2):214-9.

[Chemical composition of the virgin oil obtained by mechanical pressing form several grape seed varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) with emphasis on minor constituents].

[Article in Spanish]

Author information

1
Instituto de Química y Tecnología, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Venezuela.

Abstract

The chemical composition of the virgin oils obtained by mechanical pressing of grape seed belonging of the varieties Syrah and Tintorera as well as a mixture of seeds of the varieties Syrah, Tempranillo and Merlot was determined. Official analytical methods were employed for the determination of two quality indexes (acidity and peroxide value), fatty acids profile and for the quantification of the most important minor constituents. The acidity and the peroxide values were in agreement with the values reported by the Codex Alimentarius for good quality edible oils. The linoleic acid was the fatty acid most abundant in all samples, representing around the 65%, followed by the monounsaturated oleic acid with concentrations close to 25%. The total phytosterol concentrations were between 5179 and 5480 mg/kg, where the beta-sytosterol represented more than the 66% in all grape seed oils. The cholesterol was detected in the oils from the varieties Syrah and Tintorera in concentrations below the maximum allowed for vegetable edible oils. The ester 1-buthyl-3-methylacetate was the most abundant in the volatile fraction with concentrations of 5.4; 6.8 and 11.0 mg/kg for Syrah, Tintorera and the seeds mixture respectively. Other volatile compounds also present were the Trans-2-hexenal (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg), E-2-pentenal (3.1 to 4.2 mg/kg), hexanal (1.4 to 1.9 mg/kg) and heptanal (0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg). These compounds may be the responsible for the fruity flavor detected in all virgin oils studied. The alpha and gamma isomers of the tocotrienols accounted for more than the 80% of the tocochromanols present in the oils, while the tocopherols represented only the 10% The deep green color observed in all oil samples was associated to the presence of chlorophylls and other vegetable pigments.

PMID:
19719020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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