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Eur Heart J. 2009 Oct;30(20):2470-7. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp368. Epub 2009 Aug 30.

Characteristics of heart failure patients associated with good and poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: a PROSPECT (Predictors of Response to CRT) sub-analysis.

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Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.



Predictors of Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) (PROSPECT) was the first large-scale, multicentre clinical trial that evaluated the ability of several echocardiographic measures of mechanical dyssynchrony to predict response to CRT. Since response to CRT may be defined as a spectrum and likely influenced by many factors, this sub-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between baseline characteristics and measures of response to CRT.


A total of 286 patients were grouped according to relative reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) after 6 months of CRT: super-responders (reduction in LVESV > or =30%), responders (reduction in LVESV 15-29%), non-responders (reduction in LVESV 0-14%), and negative responders (increase in LVESV). In addition, three subgroups were formed according to clinical and/or echocardiographic response: +/+ responders (clinical improvement and a reduction in LVESV > or =15%), +/- responders (clinical improvement or a reduction in LVESV > or =15%), and -/- responders (no clinical improvement and no reduction in LVESV > or =15%). Differences in clinical and echocardiographic baseline characteristics between these subgroups were analysed. Super-responders were more frequently females, had non-ischaemic heart failure (HF), and had a wider QRS complex and more extensive mechanical dyssynchrony at baseline. Conversely, negative responders were more frequently in New York Heart Association class IV and had a history of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Combined positive responders after CRT (+/+ responders) had more non-ischaemic aetiology, more extensive mechanical dyssynchrony at baseline, and no history of VT.


Sub-analysis of data from PROSPECT showed that gender, aetiology of HF, QRS duration, severity of HF, a history of VT, and the presence of baseline mechanical dyssynchrony influence clinical and/or LV reverse remodelling after CRT. Although integration of information about these characteristics would improve patient selection and counselling for CRT, further randomized controlled trials are necessary prior to changing the current guidelines regarding patient selection for CRT.

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