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Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2009 Oct;12(5):548-55. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2009.07.009. Epub 2009 Aug 24.

Ethylene signaling and response: where different regulatory modules meet.

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Department of Genetics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.


The structural simplicity of the gaseous hormone ethylene stands in contrast with the complexity of the physiological processes ethylene regulates. Initial studies suggested a simple linear arrangement of signaling molecules leading from the ethylene receptors to the EIN3 family of transcription factors. Recent discoveries have substantially changed this view. Current models suggest existence of a complex signaling pathway composed of several phosphorylation cascades, feedback-regulated transcriptional networks, and protein and mRNA turnover regulatory modules. Interactions between ethylene and other signals determine which of the ethylene-mediated responses get activated in a particular cell at a particular time. Tissue-specific regulation of auxin biosynthesis, transport, and response by ethylene is emerging as a key element in this signal integration process.

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