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J Anxiety Disord. 2009 Dec;23(8):1139-47. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.07.019. Epub 2009 Aug 6.

A randomized, controlled clinical trial of standard, group and brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia: a two-year follow-up.

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Université du Québec à Montréal and Centre de Recherche Fernand-Seguin, Montréal, Canada.


A randomized controlled clinical trial with a wait-list control group was conducted to examine the effectiveness of three modalities (brief, group, and standard) of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for panic disorder with agoraphobia. A total of 100 participants meeting DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to each treatment condition: a 14-session standard CBT (n=33), a 14-session group CBT (n=35) and a 7-session brief CBT (n=32). Participants received a self-study manual and were assigned weekly readings and exercises. The results indicate that regardless of the treatment condition, CBT for moderate to severe PDA is beneficial in medium and long term. To this effect, all three-treatment conditions significantly reduced the intensity of symptoms, increased participants' quality of life, offered high effect sizes, superior maintenance of gains over time, and lower rates of relapse, compared to the wait-list control.

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