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J Oral Pathol Med. 2010 Jan;39(1):28-34. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2009.00826.x. Epub 2009 Aug 26.

Hyposalivation, xerostomia and oral health status of HIV-infected subjects in Thailand before HAART era.

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Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand.



The aims of this study were to determine hyposalivation, xerostomia, and oral health status of HIV-subjects in Thailand before highly active antiretroviral therapy era.


Oral examination and measurement of saliva flow rate of both unstimulated and wax-stimulated whole saliva were performed in 135 subjects (56 HIV-subjects, mean age: 34.5 years, and 79 non-HIV controls, mean age: 29.5 years). Presence of oral candidiasis, cervical root caries, and number of existing teeth were recorded. Microbiological investigation of oral Candida was conducted using oral rinse technique. Risk factors associated with hyposalivation and xerostomia were analysed.


The unstimulated flow rates in HIV-subjects and non-HIV controls were 0.19 and 0.33 ml/min (P = 0.0024). For stimulated flow rates, the corresponding figures were 1.45 and 1.62 ml/min (P = 0.31). The unstimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the asymptomatic HIV-subjects: 0.17 ml/min, when compared with the symptomatic/AIDS group 0.11 ml/min (P = 0.003). No significant difference between the groups could be found with respect to stimulated flow rate. Hyposalivation was significantly associated with the colony forming unit of Candida. Smoking and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with hyposalivation, but not xerostomia. The following factors were significantly associated with both hyposalivation and xerostomia; sex, stage of HIV infection, risk group of HIV infection, systemic disease, and medication use.


Salivary flow rate of HIV-subjects in Thailand was affected by HIV infection. The rate was significantly decreased with advanced stage of the disease. Various factors including medication use were associated with hyposalivation and xerostomia among the subjects.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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