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Psychol Rep. 2009 Jun;104(3):896-908.

Perfectionism, self-efficacy, and depression: preliminary analysis of the Japanese version of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised.

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Department of Clinical Psychology, Atomi University, 1-9-6 Nakano, Niiza-shi, Saitama 352-8501, Japan.


The Almost Perfect Scale-Revised is a self-report measure of perfectionism. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the scale's Japanese version and its relation to self-efficacy and depression. Japanese university students (N = 249) completed the Japanese version of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised along with the General Self-Efficacy Scale-12 and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Exploratory factor analysis indicated three factors: Discrepancy, High Standards, and Order. Estimates of internal consistency reliability for the three subscales were high. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised in another group of Japanese university students (N = 206) supported the 3-factor structure. Cluster analyses using the three subscales yielded four clusters. In addition to adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and nonperfectionists, identified in previous studies, a normal perfectionists group was identified, with mean scores similar to those of the total sample and depression and self-efficacy scores close to those of nonperfectionists. Adaptive perfectionists, characterized by high scores on High Standards and Order and low scores on Discrepancy, also had higher scores on self-efficacy and lower scores on depression than maladaptive perfectionists and even nonperfectionists. The influence of Japanese culture is discussed.

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