Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Vision Res. 2010 Mar 31;50(7):652-64. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2009.08.018. Epub 2009 Aug 22.

Cigarette smoking, oxidative stress, the anti-oxidant response through Nrf2 signaling, and Age-related Macular Degeneration.

Author information

1
Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Abstract

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly. While excellent treatment has emerged for neovascular disease, treatment for early AMD is lacking due to an incomplete understanding of the early molecular events. Cigarette smoking is the strongest epidemiologic risk factor, yet we do not understand how smoking contributes to AMD. Smoking related oxidative damage during the early phases of AMD may play an important role. This review explores how cigarette smoking and oxidative stress to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) might contribute to AMD, and how the transcription factor Nrf2 can activate a cytoprotective response.

PMID:
19703486
PMCID:
PMC3575185
DOI:
10.1016/j.visres.2009.08.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center