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Mol Cell Biochem. 2010 Jan;333(1-2):251-9. doi: 10.1007/s11010-009-0226-y. Epub 2009 Aug 20.

Induction of RIP-2 kinase by proinflammatory cytokines is mediated via NF-kappaB signaling pathways and involves a novel feed-forward regulatory mechanism.

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Department of Medicine, St. Luke's and Roosevelt Hospital, 1111 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10025, USA.


The transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) is a central mediator of inflammatory and apoptotic signaling in the cell. The protein kinase RIP-2 is a member of the CARD protein family (caspase activation and recruitment domain, also known as CARD3, Ripk2, CARDIAK, RICK, and CCK), and has been shown to be an activator of NF-kappaB. In this study, it was demonstrated by transcriptional profiling and protein expression analysis that the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN-gamma induced RIP-2 transcription and translation in endothelial cells. Two mechanistically distinct inhibitors of NF-kappaB signaling, sulfasalazine (NF-kappaB inhibitor) and WY-14643 [PPAR alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) agonist] that interfere with the transcription factor RELA (p65), suppressed TNF-alpha induced RIP-2 gene expression, which indicated that NF-kappaB signaling was involved in the cytokine-induced transcriptional activation of RIP-2 gene expression. Consistent with these observations, multiple NF-kappaB response elements were found in the upstream regions of the human and mouse RIP-2 genes. NF-kappaB-mediated regulation of RIP-2 gene and protein expression suggests an additional step in the regulation of NF-kappaB function as RIP-2 has been shown to positively modulate NF-kappaB by binding IKK gamma (I kappaB kinase gamma), a component of the IKK complex. These findings support a positive feed-forward mechanism of NF-kappaB regulation that involves NF-kappaB-dependent induction of RIP-2 transcription and a subsequent increase in RIP-2 protein levels in response to inflammatory cytokines. Elevated RIP-2 protein levels are then available to promote NF-kappaB function via interaction with IKK gamma. RIP-2 is the first reported NF-kappaB-dependent protein kinase that positively regulates NF-kappaB activity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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