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Fitoterapia. 2010 Mar;81(2):108-14. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.08.005. Epub 2009 Aug 15.

Immunomodulatory effects of proanthocyanidin A-1 derived in vitro from Rhododendron spiciferum.

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  • 1College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin130062, People's Republic of China.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of proanthocyanidin A-1 (PAA-1) from leaves of Rhododendron spiciferum (Ericaceae). In vitro tests showed that PAA-1 stimulated cell proliferation of splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell populations. PAA-1 also regulated the expression of Th1- and Th2-related cytokines. Moreover, this study showed that PAA-1 exhibited a significant effect on NBT dye reduction and lysosomal enzyme activity responses in macrophages, indicating effective phagocytic activation. These results revealed that PAA-1 exhibits immunomodulatory activity without a clear dose response.

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