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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Jul;1170:91-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04485.x.

T1r3 and alpha-gustducin in gut regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1.

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Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.


Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that underlies the augmented insulin release from the pancreas in response to glucose in the gut lumen more than to intravenous injected glucose (the "incretin effect"). GLP-1, found in enteroendocrine L cells of the gut, regulates appetite and gut motility and is released from L cells in response to glucose. GLP-1-expressing duodenal L cells also express T1r taste receptors, alpha-gustducin, and many other taste transduction elements. Knockout mice lacking alpha-gustducin or T1r3 have deficiencies in secretion of GLP-1 and in the regulation of plasma levels of insulin and glucose. Gut-expressed taste-signaling elements underlie multiple chemosensory functions of the gut including the incretin effect. Modulating hormone secretion from gut "taste cells" may provide novel treatments for obesity, diabetes, and malabsorption.

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