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Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Sep 15;17(18):6671-81. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.07.069. Epub 2009 Aug 6.

Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 6-naltrexamine analogs for alcohol cessation.

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Human BioMolecular Research Institute, 5310 Eastgate Mall, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.


A series of substituted aryl amide derivatives of 6-naltrexamine, 3 designed to be metabolically stable were synthesized and used to characterize the structural requirements for their potency to binding and functional activity of human mu (mu), delta (delta) and kappa (kappa) opioid and nociceptin (NOP) receptors. Binding assays showed that 4-10 had subnanomolar K(i) values for mu and kappa opioid receptors. Functional assays for stimulation of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding showed that several compounds acted as partial or inverse agonists and antagonists of the mu and delta, kappa opioid or NOP receptors. The compounds showed considerable stability in the presence of rat, mouse or human liver preparations and NADPH. The inhibitory activity on the functional activity of human cytochrome P450s was examined to determine any potential inhibition by 4-9. Only modest inhibition of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 was observed for a few of the analogs. As a representative example, radiolabeled 6 was examined in vivo and showed reasonable brain penetration. The inhibition of ethanol self-administration in rats trained to self-administer a 10% (w/v) ethanol solution, utilizing operant techniques showed 5-8 to have very potent efficacy (ED(50) values 19-50 microg/kg).

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