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Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009 Aug;7(6):709-22. doi: 10.1586/eri.09.44.

Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA.


Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii are emerging tick-borne pathogens and are the causative agents of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and E. ewingii ehrlichiosis, respectively. Collectively, these are referred to as human ehrlichioses. These obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae are transmitted by Ixodes spp. or Amblyomma americanum ticks and infect peripherally circulating leukocytes to cause infections that range in clinical spectra from asymptomatic seroconversion to mild, severe or, in rare instances, fatal disease. This review describes: the ecology of each pathogen; the epidemiology, clinical signs and symptoms of the human diseases that each causes; the choice methods for diagnosing and treating human ehrlichioses; recommendations for patient management; and is concluded with suggestions for potential future research.

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