Send to

Choose Destination
J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2009 Sep;34(3):266-74. doi: 10.1080/13668250903093125.

The Kirkpatrick model: A useful tool for evaluating training outcomes.

Author information

Discipline of Speech Pathology, University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus, PO Box 170, 75 East Street, Lidcombe, NSW1825, Australia.



Services employing staff to support people with disability usually provide training in a range of areas including communication and managing challenging behaviour. Given that such training can be costly and time-consuming, it is important to evaluate the evidence presented in support of such programs. Efficacy in clinical practice is measured using evidence-based practice. However, there is currently no model that is widely used to compare and evaluate training programs despite the large number of training programs reported each year.


Six studies published in the last decade that reported the outcomes of communication-based training and six that reported on the outcomes of challenging behaviour training were evaluated using the 4-level Kirkpatrick model.


Comparison of the levels of evidence is made for these 12 studies.


The Kirkpatrick model provides one technique for appraisal of the evidence for any reported training program and could be used to evaluate whether a training program is likely to meet the needs and requirements of both the organisation implementing the training and the staff who will participate.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center