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Environ Microbiol. 2009 Dec;11(12):3189-200. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02024.x. Epub 2009 Aug 12.

Comparative analyses of actinobacterial genomic fragments from Lake Kinneret.

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Faculty of Biology, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel.


The high genomic G+C group of Actinobacteria possesses a variety of physiological and metabolic properties, and exhibits diverse lifestyles and ecological distribution. In recent years, Actinobacteria have been found to frequently dominate samples obtained from freshwater samples. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses have shown that 16S rRNA genes from uncultured actinobacterial freshwater samples cluster in four distinct lineages. While these lineages are abundant, little is known about them and currently no pure-culture representatives or genomic fragments of them are available. In a screen of a genomic library from the moderately eutrophic freshwater Lake Kinneret, five fosmid clones containing actinobacterial genomic fragments were found. Three approximately 40 kb genomic fragments were chosen for sequencing. Fosmids K003 and K005 showed high similarity and were affiliated with the acIV actinobacterial freshwater lineage. Fosmid K004 was affiliated with the highly abundant acI lineage. A comparative genomic analysis revealed high synteny between the two freshwater clones K003 and K005 but a lower synteny between these two and the K004 fosmid. Fosmids K003 and K005 share an identical arrangement of arginine biosynthesis gene while K004 showed a slightly different arrangement by lacking the argF gene. Fosmid Ant4E12, an Antarctic actinobacterial clone, showed a higher synteny with K003/5 than K004 and a similar arginine operon, but in a different genomic context. The Clusters of Orthologous Groups categories assignment of the three fosmids yielded genes that were mostly involved in amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as transport and ribosomal RNA translation, structure and biogenesis. These genomic fragments represent the first sequences to be published from these lineages, providing a cornerstone for future work on this environmentally dominant group.

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