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Indian J Urol. 2007 Apr;23(2):181-6. doi: 10.4103/0970-1591.32072.

Meningomylocele: An update.

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Department of Urology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Lucknow - 226 014, UP, India.


Therapy-resistant overactivity of detrusor or small capacity and poor compliance, will usually need to be treated by bladder augmentation. Ileal or colonic patches are used frequently for augmenting the bladder, with either intestinal segment appearing to be equally useful. Stomach is rarely used because of the associated complications, but it is the only available intestinal segment for patients with impaired renal function. Concerns regarding long-term effects of associated metabolic acidosis, including abnormalities in linear growth and bone metabolism are misplaced. Ureterocystoplasty offers an attractive urothelium-preserving alternative, avoiding the metabolic complications, mucus production and cancer risk of heterotopic epithelium associated with enterocystoplasty. Though ideal for patients with dilated ureter and nonfunctioning kidney, in patients with functioning kidney it carries added risks associated with transuretero-ureterostomy, mainly obstruction. Ureteral dilatation in meningomyelocele patients is avoidable with proper follow-up and treatment. Therefore they rarely should be candidates for this operation. Alternative urothelium-preserving techniques, such as auto augmentation and seromuscular cystoplasty, have not proven to be as successful as standard augmentation with intestinal segment. Work is in progress on various bioengineering techniques to culture and combine bladder cells in tissue culture for regeneration. Early efforts are exciting, but preliminary.


Children; meningomyelocele; urodynamics

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