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Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2011 Dec;13(4):269-78. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00216.x. Epub 2009 Aug 5.

The influence of surface roughness on the displacement of osteogenic bone particles during placement of titanium screw-type implants.

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Department of Periodontology and Biomaterials, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.



Previously, we demonstrated that bone debris, which is translocated during dental implant placement, has osteogenic potential. Therefore, it was hypothesized that implant surface roughness can influence the amount of translocated bone debris/particles and thereby the osteogenic response.


Small titanium implants were left turned (smooth) or blasted and acid etched. The implants were placed in fresh cadaver bone. After explantation, the implants were incubated in a culture medium containing β-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone up to 24 days. Subsequently, histology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DNA analysis, and calcium (Ca) content measurements were performed.


For both types of implant during implant placement, bone particles were translocated because of inherent roughness of the implant. SEM and histology confirmed the presence of a bone-like tissue on the surface of both types of implants, as also confirmed by DNA and Ca measurements. However, the significantly higher roughness of the etched implants accounted for more bone debris and accordingly elevated osteogenic response. Control samples, which had not been placed into bone, did not show mineralization in the same medium.


The present study, for the first time, demonstrated that implant surface roughness can increase the amount of the translocated bone particles and thereby also have a beneficial effect on the osteogenic response of these bone particles. It is hypothesized that these bone fragments behave like miniature auto-grafts and thereby play a significant role to enhance peri-implant osteogenesis. Optimization of surface topography should be evaluated to take advantage of this additional effect of surface roughness.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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