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Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2009 Nov;24(9):744-50. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.07.002. Epub 2009 Aug 8.

Gastrocnemius tightness on joint angle and work of lower extremity during gait.

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Department of Physical Therapy, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan.



Muscular tightness is a common clinical musculoskeletal disorder and is regarded as a predisposing factor for muscle injuries. In this study, a two-way mixed design ANOVA was applied to investigate the effects of the gastrocnemius tightness on the joint angle and joint work during walking.


Twenty-two patients with muscular tightness of gastrocnemius muscle (<12 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion with knee extended) and 22 age- and gender-matched subjects with normal gastrocnemius flexibility (>15 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion with knee extended) participated in this study. The joint angle and work at hip, knee, and ankle joints during the stance phase were analyzed at two preset cadences of 100 steps/min and 140 steps/min.


Significantly greater flexion angles at hip (P=0.025) and knee (P=0.001) were found in the tightness group at the time of maximal ankle dorsiflexion. Significantly less work generation at knee (P=0.034) and greater work absorption at ankle (P=0.024) were detected in the tightness group.


The subjects with gastrocnemius tightness revealed a compensatory gait pattern, which included the changes in the joint angles and associated work productions. The potential disturbance of the knee control and strain injuries of plantar flexors might be crucial in the clinical considerations for subjects with gastrocnemius tightness.

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