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Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;55(3):291-9. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.08.001. Epub 2009 Aug 7.

Application of toxicokinetics to improve chemical risk assessment: implications for the use of animals.

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  • 1National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, London W1B 1AL, UK.


While toxicokinetics has become an integral part of pharmaceutical safety assessment over the last two decades, its use in the chemical industry is relatively new. However, it is recognised as a potentially important tool in human health risk assessment and recent initiatives have advocated greater application of toxicokinetics as part of an improved assessment strategy for crop protection chemicals that could offer greater efficiency, use fewer animals and provide better data for risk assessment purposes. To explore the potential scientific and animal welfare benefits of increased use of toxicokinetic data across the chemical industry, an international workshop was held in 2008. Experts from a wide range of chemical industry sectors, including industrial chemicals, agrochemicals and consumer products, participated in the meeting as well as representatives from relevant regulatory authorities. Pharmaceutical industry experts were also invited, in order to share experiences from the extensive use of toxicokinetics in drug development. Given that increased generation of toxicokinetic data could potentially result in an increased number of animals undergoing testing, technologies and strategies to reduce and refine animal use for this purpose were also considered. This paper outlines and expands upon the key themes that emerged from the workshop.

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