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Cytokine. 2009 Oct-Nov;48(1-2):148-55. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2009.07.010. Epub 2009 Aug 7.

The Dectin-2 family of C-type lectins in immunity and homeostasis.

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1
Wernher & Beit Building South, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa.

Abstract

C-type lectins are a diverse family of proteins which recognize a wide range of ligands. This review focuses on the Dectin-2 family of C-type lectins that includes Dectin-2, BDCA-2, DCIR, DCAR, Clecsf8 and Mincle whose genes are clustered in the telomeric region of the NK-gene cluster on mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 12. These type II receptors are expressed on myeloid and non-myeloid cells and contain a single extracellular carbohydrate recognition domain and have diverse functions in both immunity and homeostasis. DCIR is the only member of the family which contains a cytoplasmic signalling motif and has been shown to act as an inhibitory receptor, while BDCA-2, Dectin-2, DCAR and Mincle all associate with FcRgamma chain to induce cellular activation, including phagocytosis and cytokine production. Dectin-2 and Mincle have been shown to act as pattern recognition receptors for fungi, while DCIR acts as an attachment factor for HIV. In addition to pathogen recognition, DCIR has been shown to be pivotal in preventing autoimmune disease by controlling dendritic cell proliferation, whereas Mincle recognizes a nuclear protein released by necrotic cells. Here we review each of these receptors in detail describing their expression, ligand recognition, signalling and known physiological functions.

PMID:
19665392
PMCID:
PMC2756403
DOI:
10.1016/j.cyto.2009.07.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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