Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nat Nanotechnol. 2009 Aug;4(8):483-91. doi: 10.1038/nnano.2009.154. Epub 2009 Jul 13.

Carbon nanotube tips for atomic force microscopy.

Author information

Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.


The development of atomic force microscopy (AFM) over the past 20 years has had a major impact on materials science, surface science and various areas of biology, and it is now a routine imaging tool for the structural characterization of surfaces. The lateral resolution in AFM is governed by the shape of the tip and the geometry of the apex at the end of the tip. Conventional microfabrication routes result in pyramid-shaped tips, and the radius of curvature at the apex is typically less than 10 nm. As well as producing smaller tips, AFM researchers want to develop tips that last longer, provide faithful representations of complex surface topographies, and are mechanically non-invasive. Carbon nanotubes have demonstrated considerable potential as AFM tips but they are still not widely adopted. This review traces the history of carbon nanotube tips for AFM, the applications of these tips and research to improve their performance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center