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Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009 Oct;297(4):C1019-27. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00169.2009. Epub 2009 Aug 5.

IGF-I activates the mouse type IIb myosin heavy chain gene.

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  • 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA.

Abstract

IGF-I increases skeletal muscle mass, but whether IGF-I increases type IIb myosin heavy chain (MyHC) transcriptional activity is not known. C2C12 myotubes were cultured with or without IGF-I to determine whether IGF-I increases type IIb MyHC promoter activity, and if so, what region of the promoter might IGF-I signaling regulate. At differentiation days 3 and 4, IGF-I increased type IIb MyHC mRNA and mouse 3.0-kb type IIb MyHC promoter activity. Deletion construct studies identified a potential IGF-I-responsive region between 1.25 and 1.2 kb of the type IIb MyHC promoter, which contained an exact 6-bp T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (Tcf/Lef) binding site at position -1206 to -1201. Site-specific mutation of the putative Tcf/Lef binding site reduced IGF-I-induced 1.3-kb type IIb MyHC promoter activity. To identify potential IGF-I signaling molecules, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002 were both found to markedly attenuate IGF-I activation of the 1.3-kb type IIb MyHC promoter. Downstream signaling of IGF-I can phosphorylate and inactivate GSK-3beta, thereby enhancing beta-catenin protein. The GSK-3beta inhibitor, LiCl, dramatically enhanced IGF-I induction of the 1.3-kb type IIb MyHC promoter, and constitutively active GSK-3beta attenuated IGF-I-induced 1.3-kb type IIb MyHC promoter activity. Finally, IGF-I increased nuclear beta-catenin protein, and small interfering RNA knockdown of beta-catenin attenuated IGF-I-induced 1.3-kb type IIb MyHC promoter activity and type IIb MyHC mRNA. In summary, IGF-I stimulation of C2C12 myotubes increases mouse type IIb MyHC promoter activity, likely through signaling of PI3K, GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and a Tcf/Lef binding site at -1,206 to -1,201 bp in the promoter.

PMID:
19657059
PMCID:
PMC2770749
DOI:
10.1152/ajpcell.00169.2009
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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