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J Virol. 2009 Nov;83(21):10951-62. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00682-09. Epub 2009 Aug 5.

Target cell type-dependent modulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid disassembly by cyclophilin A.

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Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


The binding of cyclophilin A (CypA) to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein (CA protein) is required soon after virus entry into natural target cells. In Jurkat T lymphocytes, disrupting CypA-CA interaction either by cyclosporine (Cs) treatment or by alteration (e.g., P90A) of the CA inhibits HIV-1 infection. In HeLa cells, however, treatment with Cs or Cs analogues minimally inhibits the early phase of HIV-1 infection but selects for a Cs-dependent virus with a change (A92E) in CA. To understand these phenomena, we examined the effects of the P90A and A92E changes in the HIV-1 CA protein on the stability of capsid complexes assembled in vitro and on capsid disassembly in the cytosol of virus-exposed target cells. The A92E change impaired CA-CA interactions in vitro and decreased the amount of particulate capsids in the cytosol of HeLa target cells. Reducing the binding of CypA to the A92E mutant capsid, either by Cs treatment or by an additional P90A change in the CA protein, increased the amount of particulate capsids and viral infectivity in HeLa cells. In contrast, reduction of the binding of CypA to HIV-1 capsids in Jurkat T lymphocytes resulted in a decrease in the amount of particulate capsids and infectivity. Thus, depending on the capsid and the target cell, CypA-CA binding either stabilized or destabilized the capsid, indicating that CypA modulates HIV-1 capsid disassembly. In both cell types examined, decreased stability of the capsid was associated with a decrease in the efficiency of HIV-1 infection.

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