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J Periodontol. 2009 Aug;80(8):1254-64. doi: 10.1902/jop.2009.080403.

Full-mouth ultrasonic debridement associated with amoxicillin and metronidazole in the treatment of severe chronic periodontitis.

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Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontics, Division of Periodontics, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adjunctive clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic effects of the systemic administration of amoxicillin and metronidazole in the full-mouth ultrasonic debridement of patients with severe chronic periodontitis.


Twenty-five patients presenting at least eight teeth with probing depth (PD) > or =5 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) were selected and randomly assigned to full-mouth ultrasonic debridement + placebo (control group) or full-mouth ultrasonic debridement + amoxicillin and metronidazole (test group). The clinical outcomes evaluated were visible plaque index, BOP, position of the gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL), and PD. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for quantitative analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique permitted the detection of prostaglandin E(2,) interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma levels in gingival crevicular fluid. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-treatment.


At 6 months, the test treatment resulted in lower BOP and an additional reduction (0.83 mm) in PD (P <0.05). Data also showed RAL gain > or =2 mm at 43.52% of sites in control patients compared to 58.03% of sites in test patients (P <0.05). However, both groups had similar mean RAL gain (1.68 and 1.88 mm for the control and test groups, respectively). Real-time PCR and ELISA failed to identify significant differences between the groups.


Both treatments resulted in significant clinical improvements; however, there was a slight, but significantly greater, improvement in BOP and the percentage of sites with PD > or =5 mm exhibiting RAL gain > or =2 mm in the test group. Nevertheless, no improvement in the microbiologic or immunologic outcome was observed with the adjunctive use of systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole.

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