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Lipids. 2009 Sep;44(9):787-97. doi: 10.1007/s11745-009-3326-2. Epub 2009 Aug 5.

Tocotrienols suppress proinflammatory markers and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages.

Author information

1
Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract

Tocotrienols are powerful chain breaking antioxidant. Moreover, they are now known to exhibit various non-antioxidant properties such as anti-cancer, neuroprotective and hypocholesterolemic functions. This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and individual tocotrienol isoforms namely delta-, gamma-, and alpha-tocotrienol on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The widely studied vitamin E form, alpha-tocopherol, was used as comparison. Stimulation of RAW264.7 with lipopolysaccharide induced the release of various inflammatory markers. 10 mcirog/ml of TRF and all tocotrienol isoforms significantly inhibited the production of interleukin-6 and nitric oxide. However, only alpha-tocotrienol demonstrated a significant effect in lowering tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Besides, TRF and all tocotrienol isoforms except gamma-tocotrienol reduced prostaglandin E(2) release. It was accompanied by the down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression by all vitamin E forms except alpha-tocopherol. Collectively, the data suggested that tocotrienols are better anti-inflammatory agents than alpha-tocopherol and the most effective form is delta-tocotrienol.

PMID:
19655189
DOI:
10.1007/s11745-009-3326-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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