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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Nov 1;52(3):382-6. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b17f53.

Raltegravir, etravirine, and ritonavir-boosted darunavir: a safe and successful rescue regimen for multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection.

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Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron and Departament de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Erratum in

  • J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Nov 1;58(3):e102.



Boosted darunavir (DRV/r) plus etravirine (ETR), in DUET trials, and raltegravir, in BENCHMRK trials, showed high rates of virologic response in patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection, particularly when associated with two more fully active antiretroviral drugs. No data from clinical trials, about this combination, are available.


Thirty-two consecutive heavily pretreated patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection who started a new salvage regimen with RAL (400 mg twice daily), ETR (200 mg twice daily), and DRV/r (600/100 mg twice daily) were studied. Clinical evaluation and immunologic, virologic, and biochemical parameters were collected at baseline and at Weeks 4, 12, and 24.


Median baseline characteristics were age 44 years, 13 years on antiretroviral therapy, nine prior highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens, 261 CD4 cells/mL, and HIV-1 RNA 4.2 log10 copies/mL. Sixteen (50%) and 14 (44%) patients were enfuvirtide- and tipranavir-experienced, respectively. Three-class resistance mutations were present in all patients. Three patients (9%) had isolates with three ETR resistance mutations. All patients were DRV-naïve with a median of one DRV resistance mutation. At Weeks 4, 12, and 24, respectively, 63%, 81%, and 94% of patients achieved HIV1-RNA less than 50 copies/mL. Median CD4 cell count increased 30, 73, and 103 cells/mL at Weeks 4, 12, and 24, respectively. No patient had adverse events leading to discontinuation of the regimen.


The combination of raltegravir, ETR, and DRV/r was a highly effective and well-tolerated antiretroviral salvage regimen in patients infected with multidrug-resistant HIV-1.

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