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Stat Methods Med Res. 2010 Feb;19(1):71-99. doi: 10.1177/0962280209105020. Epub 2009 Aug 4.

Pseudo-observations in survival analysis.

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Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen K, Denmark.


We review recent work on the application of pseudo-observations in survival and event history analysis. This includes regression models for parameters like the survival function in a single point, the restricted mean survival time and transition or state occupation probabilities in multi-state models, e.g. the competing risks cumulative incidence function. Graphical and numerical methods for assessing goodness-of-fit for hazard regression models and for the Fine-Gray model in competing risks studies based on pseudo-observations are also reviewed. Sensitivity to covariate-dependent censoring is studied. The methods are illustrated using a data set from bone marrow transplantation.

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